What Blood Tests Can Diagnose Uterine Cancer?

Blood tests have a role in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment planning of uterine cancer. Your doctor may also order imaging tests and a biopsy to confirm uterine cancer if they have any suspicions about it.

As of right now, there are no uterine cancer screening tests available. However, your doctor may prescribe blood testing if you're experiencing symptoms like odd vaginal discharge or aberrant uterine haemorrhage.

To find out more about blood tests and other diagnostic procedures used by medical professionals to identify uterine cancer, keep reading.

Can blood tests detect uterine cancer?

When diagnosing uterine cancer in its early stages, physicians may utilise blood tests. The test findings may indicate signs that indicate the existence of cancer and provide your doctor with a more comprehensive understanding of your general health.

It's crucial to note that uterine cancer cannot be conclusively diagnosed by a blood test.

To confirm a diagnosis, other testing such as imaging and biopsy will be required. To do a biopsy, your doctor will take a tiny sample of tissue and examine it carefully.

If you have previously received a uterine cancer diagnosis, blood tests may be used to track the efficacy of your therapy.

What blood tests are used to detect uterine cancer?

A few different blood tests are available for doctors to employ in the detection of uterine cancer. Below, we'll go into a bit more depth about each of them.

CA-125 test

A marker for tumours is CA-125. Tumour markers are generally chemicals that are either created by cancer cells or by the body as a result of cancer.

The most common association between CA-125 and ovarian cancer is that it might originate from other tissues, like the endometrium (lining of the uterus).

Elevations of CA-125 in the blood can indicate that endometrial cancer has progressed to other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes or distant organs. Your doctor can also be informed about the efficacy of your treatment by a CA-125 test. A drop in CA-125 levels may indicate that the cancer is responding well to your treatment.

Complete blood count

One common blood test that is usually performed during a standard medical examination is a complete blood count. It gauges the blood concentrations of various cells.

Anaemia can result from uterine cancer since it can induce irregular uterine bleeding. When your red blood cell (RBC) numbers are below normal, you have anaemia.

High mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values were also linked to endometrial cancer, according to a 2018 study. Your RBCs are larger than usual when you have a high MCV, which may indicate anaemia.

Finding additional blood tests for uterine cancer

All things considered, no blood marker exists at this time that may accurately identify uterine cancer. Researchers are still searching for blood indicators and diagnostic tools that can aid in the early detection of uterine cancer.

HE4 is one such potential marker. Over 90% of endometrial malignancies had high levels of HE4, according to research. Additionally, HE4 might be more specific and sensitive in identifying it than CA-125.

Furthermore, a 2020 study attempted to identify endometrial cancer in blood samples using machine learning and a method known as blood spectroscopy. Overall, 87% of the time this test accurately identified it and 78% of the time it correctly ruled it out.

Other tests to diagnose uterine cancer

To identify uterine cancer, your doctor will order other tests in addition to blood tests.

An abdominal or transvaginal ultrasound can be used by a medical expert to check for uterine cancer. The thickness of the endometrium, which is frequently thicker in endometrial cancer, can also be ascertained with the use of a transvaginal ultrasound.

A biopsy sample will then be required by a physician to validate the diagnosis of uterine cancer. This could include:
  • endometrial biopsy, which extracts a little sample of the endometrium by suction
  • hysteroscopy
  • dilation and curettage (D&C)
To check for cancer cells, a medical practitioner will test the biopsy sample in a lab. To further characterise the cancer, they can also do further tests on the material.

If you receive a uterine cancer diagnosis, more imaging tests may be necessary to assess the cancer's stage and extent. These examinations could consist of:
  • computed tomography (CT) scans
  • positron emission tomography (PET) scans
  • chest X-ray
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans

Symptoms and when to see a doctor

Aberrant uterine haemorrhage is the most typical sign of uterine cancer. That is bleeding from this:
  • occurs after menopause
  • happens between periods
  • is not as heavy, longer, or erratic as usual for your period
Some signs of uterine cancer are as follows:
  • unusual vaginal discharge
  • abdominal or pelvic pain
  • bloating
  • unintended weight loss
  • a palpable lump in the abdomen
  • modifications to bowel or bladder habits, such as constipation or uncomfortable urination
It's not always the case that having these symptoms indicates you have uterine cancer. Still, it's crucial to discuss any concerns, such as unusual uterine bleeding, with your physician. To ascertain the situation, they can request tests.

Early identification is crucial for uterine cancer because the prognosis gets better the sooner a doctor discovers it.


Doctors can diagnose and stage uterine cancer with the aid of blood testing. They might also use them to keep an eye on how well the treatment for uterine cancer is working.

Nevertheless, there isn't a blood test available right now that can conclusively identify uterine cancer. Confirming the diagnosis requires the study of a biopsy sample and imaging studies.

Unusual uterine bleeding is the most typical sign of uterine cancer, therefore it's critical to consult your physician if you experience this or any other worrisome symptoms. To help determine the reason behind your symptoms, your doctor can do testing.

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